Field Artillery No. 2
12-Pound Napoleon Field Gun, Model 1857
A bronze smoothbore developed in France in the 1850s for Emperor Napoleon III.
Fired shot, shell, case shot, and canister.
Maneuverable and effective at long range and against infantry assaults.
Napoleons were used by both sides; the Federal version had a muzzle swell while the Confederate type had a straight tube.
By mid-1863 nearly 40 percent of all the field artillery pieces in each army were Napoleons.
The 12-pound shot was 4.5 inches in diameter.
Tube was 66 inches long, weighed 1227 lbs., and the bore was 4.62 inches.
Powder charge was 2.5 lbs.
Range at 5 degree elevation was 1619 yards. (One mile equals 1760 yards.)
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